Artist's concept of the shape of the magnetosphere

Projects, Papers, and News:

This page contains links and projects that have to do with the plasmasphere. It also has a list of references from scholarly papers written about the plasmasphere.

Projects, News

Pseudo-Densities for the Jan.-Feb. 2005 HAARP Experiment
Daily He+ psuedo-densities and EUV images obtained from IMAGE spacecraft Extreme Ultra-Violet instrument (EUV)
The Origin and Evolution of Deep Plasmaspheric Notches (pdf)
A paper that examines notches in the plasmasphere from IMAGE/EUV data. Eighteen plasmaspheric events are analyzed to study notch properties and causes. Plasmasphere modeling is also used to answer these questions.
Venture Experiment on the Deep Space Test Bed
High school students in Huntsville, AL in The Venture Crew flew a very low frequency radio receiver and video camera on the Deep Space Test Bed balloon engineering test flight. .
Plasma, Plasma Everywhere
NASA science news featured story about the plasmasphere and the Global Core Plasma Model

Papers and References

These papers are only a partial list of important plasmasphere related publications.

  1. Bailey, G. J., N. Balan and Y. Z. Su, The Sheffield University
    plasmasphere ionosphere model-a review, Journal of Atmospheric and
    Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 59, Issue 13, Pages 1541-1552,
    September 1997.

  2. Binsack, J.H., Plasmapause observations with the M.I.T. experiment on
    IMP 2, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 5231, 1967.

  3. Brace, L.H. and R.F. Theis, The behavior of the plasmapause at
    mid-latitudes: sis 1 Langmuir probe measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 79,
    1871-1884, 1974.

  4. Carpenter, D.L. and R.L. Smith, Whistler measurements of electron
    density in the magnetosphere, Rev. of Geophys., 2, 415, 1964.

  5. Carpenter, D.L., Whistler studies of the plasmapause in the
    magnetosphere1. Temporal variations in the position of the knee and some
    evidence on plasma motions near the knee, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 693,

  6. Carpenter, D.L., and R.R. Anderson, An ISEE/whistler model of equatorial
    electron density in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1097-1108,

  7. Carpenter, D. L., Whistler evidence of the dynamic behavior of the
    duskside bulge in the plasmasphere, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 3837, 1970.

  8. Chappell, C.R., K.K. Harris, and G.W. Sharp, The morphology of the bulge
    region of the plasmasphere, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 3848, 1970.

  9. Chappell, C.R., K.K. Harris, and G.W. Sharp, The dayside of the
    plasmasphere, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 7632, 1971.

  10. Chasovitin, Yu.K., Gulyaeva, T.L., Deminov, M.G., Ivanova, S.E. Russian
    standard model of ionosphere (SMI). In COST251TD(98)005, RAL, UK,
    161-172, 1998.

  11. Comfort, R. H., I. T. Newberry, and C. R. Chappell, Preliminary
    statistical survey of plasmaspheric ion properties from observations by
    DE- 1/RIMS, Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma, ed. T. E. Moore and J. H.
    Waite, Jr ., American Geophysical Union, 107, 1988.

  12. Craven, P. D., D. L. Gallagher, Relative Concentration of He+ in the
    Inner Magnetosphere as Observed by the DE 1 Retarding Ion Mass
    Spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 2279-2289, 1997.

  13. Craven, P. D.,, R. H. Comfort, D. L. Gallagher, and R. West, a study of
    the statistical behavior of ion temperatures from DE1/RIMS, Geophysical
    Monograph 62, A.G.U., 1991.

  14. Decreau, P.M.E., B. Beghin, and M. Parrot, Global characteristics of the
    cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the
    GEOS 1 mutual impedance probe, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 695-712, 1982.

  15. Denton, R. and D.L. Gallagher, Determining the mass density along
    magnetic field lines from toroidal eigenfrequencies, J. Geophys. Res.,
    105, (A12), 27,717-27,726, 2000.

  16. Denton, R. E.,, J. Goldstein, and J. D. Menietti, Field line dependence
    of magnetospheric electron density, GEOPHYS. RES. LETT., VOL. 29, NO.
    24, 2205, doi:10.1029/2002GL015963, 2002.

  17. Denton, R. E.,, J. D. Menietti, J. Goldstein, S. L. Young, and R. R.
    Anderson, Electron density in the magnetosphere, J. GEOPHYS. RES., VOL.
    109, A09215, doi:10.1029/2003JA010245, 2004.

  18. Denton, R.E., J. Goldstein, D.-H. Lee, R.A. King, Z.C. Dent, D.L.
    Gallagher, D. Berube, K. Takahashi, M. Nose, D. Milling and F. Honary,
    Realistic magnetospheric density model for 29 August 2000, Journal of
    Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 68, Issue 6, Pages
    615-628, March 2006.

  19. Freeman, R.M., Langmuir probe studies of low energy magnetospheric
    plasma, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1973. (see Rycroft, M.J.,A
    review of in situ observations of the plasmapause, Ann. Geophys., 31,

  20. Gallagher, D. L., P. D. Craven, Initial Development of a New Empirical
    Model of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere for Density, Temperature, and
    Composition, Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma, Geophys. Monogr. Serv Vol
    44,44, 61-65,1986

  21. Gallagher, D.L., P.D. Craven, and R.H. Comfort, An empirical model of
    the earth's plasmasphere, Adv. Space Res., 8, 15, 1988.

  22. Gallagher, D. L., P. D. Craven, R. H. Comfort, and T. E. Moore, On the
    azimuthal variation of core plasma in the equatorial magnetosphere, J.
    Geophys. Res., 100, 23,597, 1995.

  23. Gallagher, D. L., P. D. Craven, R. H. Comfort, A Simple Model of
    Magnetospheric Trough Total Density, Journal of Geophysical Research,
    103, 9293-9297, 1998.

  24. Gallagher, D. L., P.D. Craven, and R.H. Comfort, Global Core Plasma
    Model, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 18819-18833, 2000.

  25. Gringauz, K.I. and V.V. Bezrukikh, Asymmetry of the Earth's plasmasphere
    in the direction noon-midnight from Prognoz and Prognoz-2 data, J.
    Atmos. Terr. Phys., 38, 1071-1076, 1976.

  26. Gulyaeva, Tamara L., Xueqin Huang and Bodo W. Reinisch, Plasmaspheric
    extension of topside electron density profiles, Advances in Space
    Research, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 825-831, March 2002.

  27. Gulyaeva, T.L., Huang, X., Reinisch, B.W. The ionosphere-plasmasphere
    model software for ISO, Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica 37(2-3),
    143-152, 2002.

  28. Higel, B. and W. Lei, Electron density and plasmapause characteristics
    at 6.6 RE: A statistical study of the GEOS 2 relaxation sounder data, J.
    Geophys. Res., 89, 1583-1601, 1984.

  29. Horwitz, J.L., R.H. Comfort, and C.R. Chappell, A statistical
    characterization of plasmasphere density structure and boundary
    locations, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7937-7947, 1990.

  30. Huang, X., B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, P. Nsumei, J.L. Green, D.L.
    Gallagher, Empirical Models of the Plasma Density in the Inner
    Magnetosphere, Proceedings of Advances for Space Research, COSPAR,
    Houston, TX, October 10-19, 2002.

  31. Kimura, I., K. Tsunehara, A. Hikuma, Y. Z. Su, Y. Kasahara and H. Oya,
    Global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere deduced from
    Akebono wave data and the IRI model, Journal of Atmospheric and
    Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 59, Issue 13, Pages 1569-1586,
    September 1997.

  32. Knott, K. R. Grard, and A. Pedersen, Radial discontinuities in
    low-energy magnetospheric plasma observed on GEOS-1, Proc.
    Magnetospheric Boundary Layers Conf., Alpbach, pgs. 75-79, 11-15 June,

  33. Kutiev, I., K. Oyama, and T. Abe, Analytical representation of the
    plasamasphere electron temperature distribution based on Akebono data,
    J. Geophys. Res. 107, (A12), 1459, doi:10.1029/2002JA009494, 2002.

  34. Kutiev, I., K.-I. Oyama, T. Abe, and P. Marinov, Plasmasphere electron
    temperature model based on Akebono data, Adv. Space Res. 33, #6,
    975-979, 2004.

  35. Kutiev, I., K.-I. Oyama, S. Watanabe, T. Abe, and A. Kumamoto,
    Plasmasphere electron temperature structures, Adv. Space Res. 34, #9,
    2010-2015, 2004.

  36. Larsen, B. A., D. M. Klumpar, and C. Gurgiolo, Correlation between
    plasmapause position and solar wind parameters, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.
    69, (2007) 334-340.

  37. Leitinger, R., S. Radicella, G. Hochegger and B. Nava, Diffusive
    equilibrium models for the height region above the F2 peak, Advances in
    Space Research, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 809-814, March 2002.

  38. Leitinger, R., Magnetic field aligned modeling for the upper F region
    and for the plasmasphere, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C:
    Solar, Terrestrial & Planetary Science, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages
    299-303, 1999.

  39. Lemaire, J. F. and Scherer, M., Models of the Polar Ion-Exosphere,
    Planet Space Sci, Volume 18, Pages 103-120, 1970.

  40. Lemaire, J. F. and Scherer, M., Kinetic Models of the Solar and Polar Winds,
    Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics,
    Volume 11, Pages 427-468, 1973.

  41. Lemaire, J. F., Hydrostatic equilibrium and convective stability in the
    plasmasphere, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics,
    Volume 61, Issue 11, Pages 867-878, July 1999.

  42. Maynard, N.C. and J.M. Grebowsky, The plasmapause revisited, J. Geophys.
    Res., 82 1591, 1977.

  43. Moffett, R. J., G. H. Millward, S. Quegan, A. D. Aylward and T. J.
    Fuller-Rowell, Results from a coupled model of the thermosphere,
    ionosphere and plasmasphere (CTIPM), Advances in Space Research, Volume
    18, Issue 3, Pages 33-39, 1996.

  44. Moldwin, M.B, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, D.J. McComas, and K.R. Moore, An
    examination of the structure and dynamics of the outer plasmasphere
    using multiple geosynchronous satellites, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 11475,

  45. O'Brien T. P., and M. B. Moldwin, Empirical plasmapause models from magnetic indices,
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (4), 1152, doi:10.1029/2002GL016007, 2003.

  46. Park, C.G., D.L. Carpenter, and D.B. Wiggin, Electron density in the
    plasmasphere: Whistler data on solar cycle, annual, and diurnal
    variations, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3137, 1978.

  47. Pierrard, V. and J. Lemaire, Exospheric model of the plasmasphere,
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 63, Issue
    11, Pages 1261-1265, July 2001.

  48. Reinisch, B.W. , P. Nsumei, X. Huang and D.K. Bilitza, Modeling the F2
    topside and plasmasphere for IRI using IMAGE/RPI and ISIS data, Advances
    in Space Research, Volume 39, Issue 5, Pages 731-738, 2007.

  49. Sheeley, B. W., M. B. Moldwin, and H. K. Rassoul, An empirical
    plasmasphere and trough density model: CRRES observations, J. Geophys.
    Res., 106, A11, 25,631-25,641, 2001.

  50. Taylor, H.A., Jr., H.C. Brinton, and C.R. Smith, Positive ion
    composition in the magnetosphere obtained from the Ogo-A satellite, J.
    Geophys. Res., 70, 5769, 1965.

  51. Taylor, H.A., H.C. Brinton, and A.R. Deshmukh,  Observations of
    irregular structure in thermal ion distributions in the duskside
    magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 2481, 1970.

  52. Tu, Jiannan, Paul Song, Bodo W. Reinisch, James L. Green, and Xueqin
    Huang, Empirical specification of field-aligned plasma
    density profiles for plasmasphere refilling, J. GEOPHYS. RES., VOL. 111,
    A06216, doi:10.1029/2005JA011582, 2006.

  53. Webb, P. A. and E. A. Essex, An ionosphere-plasmasphere global electron
    density model, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C: Solar,
    Terrestrial & Planetary Science, Volume 25, Issue 4, Pages 301-306,

  54. Webb, P. A., and E. A. Essex, Modifications to the Titheridge upper
    ionosphere and plasmasphere temperature model, J. GEOPHYS. RES., VOL.
    108, NO. A10, 1359, doi:10.1029/2002JA009754, 2003.

  55. Webb, P. A. and E. A. Essex, A dynamic global model of the plasmasphere,
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 66, Issue
    12, Pages 1057-1073, August 2004.

  56. Wilford, C. R., R. J. Moffett and J. M. Rees, Modelling helium ions in
    the earth's upper atmosphere, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, Volume
    34, Issues 2-4, Pages 383-397, October 2001.

Web Links

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Author: Dr. D.L. Gallagher dennis.gallagher @
Responsible Official: Dr. David McKenzie
Last Updated: August 17, 2015